Many in China need to declare that their nation has seen 4000 years of continuous civilization. In actuality, new proof suggests that Chinese civilization might even be older
For Westerners, Chinese history is either utterly unknown or solely vaguely identified. Nevertheless, in many compulsory Western civilization programs, professors need to joke that Western history is a collection of countless wars and genocide. Once you get the same professors personal, they easily recognize that oriental civilization shouldn’t be totally different, particularly relating to China.
Throughout those hundreds of years of civilization, China has been the scene of a lot of genocide massacres. A few of these have been brought on by external attacks, while others have been brought on by civil warfare and imperial politics. In either case, the next instances have been large slaughter on an unprecedented scale until the horror of World Conflict II. Some even exceeded the body of the Bolsheviks, Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler.
10. January 28 Event
The Japanese troopers, ships and aircraft have been long before Hitler's tanks plundered over Poland. . At the moment, China could not defend itself. After the 1911–12 revolution, the previous Qing empire had turn out to be a damaged state dominated by a number of warlords.
Even after the successful northern expedition of the 1927s, the Kuomintang Social gathering and its National Revolutionary Military (NRA) have been simply preliminary on the coast. Worse, the violent attacks towards communists after the takeover of Shanghai's Kuomintang led to the Chinese Civil Struggle, which might not end before Mao's reign in 1949.
The most effective use of this example was Japan. The Japanese Empire had expanded to Manchuria since 1895, when, after Japan's victory, Qing gained certain rights in the world. The Kwantung army, founded in Manchuria after Japan had conquered the Russian Empire in 1905, needed extra Chinese land.
The Kwantung army was nearly unbiased of Tokyo and filled with younger officers in the Imperial Approach. They believed that overthrowing Japan's parliamentary coverage would create a huge Japanese empire dominated by an autocratic emperor. In September 1931, the Japanese-owned railroad bombing gave an excuse that the Kwantung military needed to occupy all of Manchuria and declare it to a brand new Japanese state, recognized later as Manchukuo.
28. January 1932, the second “Event” introduced Japan and Kuomintang to the forefront of open hostility. After the takeover of Kwantung Manchuria, Chinese residents began to boycott all Japanese goods. In response, Japanese troopers and sailors have been despatched to Shanghai, the most essential port in Asia and the most important metropolis in China, ostensibly to protect Japanese life and property.
On the dawn of the 28th day, the Japanese ship Notoro launched airplanes that fell throughout the flares present in Shanghai, blurring the decline of the elite special ship dismantling forces (SNLF). SNLF quickly began to rob NRA's 19th Army.
The subsequent day, even more planes flew across Shanghai. They have been ordered to bomb the army. Because of the dangerous climate, Japanese aircraft primarily bombed civilian targets. The respected historian Barbara Tuchman later described this event because the world's first "terrorist blockade", which signifies that Tuchman believed that Japanese watercraft have been intentionally concentrating on Shanghai civilians.
Tuchman and other scientists have killed 10,000 to 20,000 Chinese civilians. These figures have been questioned by different historians. They have discovered that the fight aircraft, E1Y, carried only 200 kilos (441 lb) of bombs and had a lonely 7.7 mm machine gun, which made it arduous to consider that they might do such injury. [19659002RiippumattatodellisistakustannuksistakukaaneikysyettätuhannetShanghaininsiviilitkuolivatShanghainpimeänsodanaikanaJapanilaisethyökkäyksetShanghaissatapahtuivathelmikuuhunastimuttaSNLFpysähtyiyllättävänmääritetyn19thRouteArmy'navulla
Nevertheless, it was on 1 March 1932, when SNLF gained the Chinese enemy. The ceasefire was proclaimed, Shanghai demilitarized (besides Japanese and Western nations), and Manchukuo was confirmed. 
9 Dzungar Genocide
Some of at the moment's China has seen as much bloodshed as in the western western province of Xinjiang. Immediately, the province is the home of state-run concentration camps to wash up nearly all of Muslim Uighurs of their faith.
Beijing also uses "soft genocide" to switch the demographic, in order that Xinjiang can be much less Muslim and fewer Turkish and extra Han Chinese. Already in 2010, the Uyghurs have been less than 50% of the entire inhabitants, whereas the Han Chinese had grown significantly because the 1990s.
The Chinese state, although not underneath Han's ethnic management, has all the time sought to deliver Xinjiang to the heel. This was achieved not only to broaden the imperial control and to extend tax revenues also to ban Russia from holding another Central Asia
Within the 18th century, Xinjiang's biggest energy was Dzungar Khanate, a state dominated by the nomadic Mongolian alliance tribes. Khanaatin at an altitude of Dzungaria-warlords reached trade agreements with Russia, made a covenant with the Dalai Lama in Tibet and founded the regulation code ( "Forty and four great code"), which utilized only to ethnic Mongols [19659002BuddhalainenDzungarsalkoikiristääQing-dynastiaakunhehyökkäsivätTiibetiinvuonna1717mikävaatiQing-armeijaavastaamaanVuonna1720Qing-keisariKangxilähettisuurenretkikunnanpoistamaanjäljelläolevatDzungaritTiibetistäTiibetiläisettervehtivätQingiäpelastajinakuntaasQingasettiKelzangGyatsoseitsemänneksiDalaiLama
Scary, that Dzungars would journey both to Tibet or to a western Qing province, Qianlong Emperor sent numerous soldiers to expeditions to the Dzungar area to overcome the canal. This was achieved in 1757 because of a combined army of Manchu and Mongolian riders. The final Dzungar Prince Prince Amursana found refuge in Russia
The Qing conquest and the demise of Dzungar Khanate misplaced 80 % of the Dzungar population. It was between 480,000 and 500,000 deaths. The remaining 20 % of the Dzungar was pressured into slavery, whereas the former Canadian nations settled down with Manchu, Mongol and Han immigrants 
8 Warlord Civil Wars
was an excellent instability in China. It was also a period of countless warfare, the place the warlord "Clicks" fought each other for cash, land and prestige. These wars embrace the 1920s Zhili-Anhui Struggle, which struck the Hebei Province's Zhili Stone towards Anhui Stone in Anhui Province.
This was the first warlord struggle and commenced when Anhui attacked Zhil on July 14th. 1920. The whole function was to seize government control in Beiyang (Beijing). Despite the help of the Japanese army, Anhui would ultimately have to hitch Zhil and Fengtian troops, who conquered Beijing on July 19th. About 35,000 troopers died in this conflict.
and Fengtian clicks fought one another between 1922 and 1924. Fengtian troops based mostly on the current province of Liaoning gained the second struggle, backed by Japanese and Belarusian soldiers, led by Konstantin Petrovich Nechaev.
The Zhili-Fengtian conflicts killed tens of hundreds, if not lots of of hundreds. The later battle, often known as the Fengtian Warfare, saw Kuomintang's early incarnation making an attempt to overturn the Fengtian government in Beijing with the help of the Soviet Union.
Fengtian-Clique – who has materials, economic and army help from Japan, white Russian volunteers, and Zhili-Clique managed to win the struggle. The struggle that lasted between 1926 and 1927 only weakened the armies of warlords, who have been uninterested in the preventing, and elevated distrust among the Chinese inhabitants. Whereas some proved to be wonderful maintainers (one of the best example was Yan Xishan from Kuomintang), most have been cynical brothers who made cash by exploiting misery. Most warlords had been bandits earlier than they turned soldiers, and so the felony acts have been natural to them
Feng Yuxiang, "a Christian warlord," publicly proclaimed medicine whereas making $ 20 million in annual income from opium-related taxes. Ma Hongkui, a Muslim army commander in Ningxia Province, was considered one of China's largest generals, but in addition a tyrant.
When he turned Governor of Ningxia in 1932, he introduced that he had completed one performance per day. Considered one of his first movements as governor was to dismantle 300 bandits. Ma's powerful anti-communist battle additionally meant that Communists and suspected Communists in Ningxia have been typically killed. Zhang's military, situated in Shandong's wealthy coastal area, like all Chinese armies (together with nationalists), made money from opium and forced ladies into prostitution. Nevertheless, Zhang resigned from this shop and was referred to as the "basest warlord" of China in Time journal.
Zhang was recognized to be messy. Through the peak of his power, he had 30-50 siblings welcome from China, Korea, Japan, Russia, France and america. Not only was Zhang continuously acquainted with his penis measurement and well-known gambler and opium addict, Zhang was a poet whose most well-known puzzle ends in a row: “Then I get my gun bombed by your mother. 
7 Panthay's Revolt
China's present struggle towards Islamist rebels is nothing new. The journey in the times of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in Beijing was a continuing conflict with Muslim armies, each from China and beyond China. Between 1856 and 1873, in Yunnan's nice Muslim murder rebel, Qing was urgently required to dismantle.
In line with historical David G. Atwill, the normal rationalization is that the rebel was born because of the anger of the Hui Muslims. Han Chinese shouldn’t be totally true. Slightly, what the Chinese know as the Du Wenxiu champion started as a socio-economic protest towards Qing confusion.
Particularly between 1775 and 1850, the Han-Chinese transition to Yunnan saw the province's population progress from 4 million to 10 million. This migration brought on a pointy cultural attack between the Han and Hui populations and brought on the deterioration of the surroundings and the failure of the Qing firm to offer direct imperial management over Yunnan. Landowners started concentrating on Hui residents in well-coordinated riots in cities. Muslim leaders Ma Dexin, Ma Rulong, and Du Wenx shaped militias who revolted Muslim deaths during these riots. However their armies later turned multinational actions to struggle the Qing government.
Du (aka Sultan Sulayman) turned a racing point for independence. Du acquired weapons and encouragement from British Indian officials in Burma, while Qing acquired help from French officers at Tonkin.
Qing defeated the revolt and cruelly punished the rebels. Hundreds of thousands of Hui Muslims and other Yunnanese immigrants came to Burma from the British state of Shan. Many of these immigrants later turned leaders and shakers of drug trafficking in the world. These rebels who didn't surrender Qing died. All in all, about one million hui Muslim and non-Muslim rebels and civilians died. Qing additionally lost one million.
6 Rebel of Dungan
Though the Yunnan Provincial Muslims have been in insurrection, Muslims in central and western provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang have been also an open revolt. Qing. 1862-1877 The Qing armies, Han Chinese locals and Muslims from each background went to warfare across China.
Typically, in 1862, a press release was made between a Han merchant and a purchaser of Hui Muslims in the bamboo columns. When the Hui buyer refused to pay the merchant-requested worth, the 2 ethnic groups began to battle towards each other.
What happened immediately is unclear, but that yr, the Hui individuals on the West Bank The Yellow River in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces declared an unbiased Muslim state. At the similar time, Xinjiang Turkish Muslims broke out in riot towards Beijing. In 1864, the capital of Urumq Province was in rebellious palms
Dungan's insurrection was worldwide, as in all of the late Qing Empire. The Qing government acquired help from both Hui loyalists and Khufiyya Suf. The Middle Surroundings Hui Muslims have been alone and really inconsistent
In the meantime, Xinjiang's cause and its leader Yaqub Beg acquired help from Russia, the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Yaqub Beg was liable for turning the insurrection right into a triple warfare when Turkish Muslims proclaimed warfare in the 1860s towards Han Chinese residents and "jihad" towards Hui Muslims (Dungans).
There was little conflict, but this did not forestall Dungan's rebel from turning into one of many most genocidal conflicts in history. By 1877, two million Hui Muslims had died in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia, and about six million Chania had also been killed. These Deaths represented virtually 50 % of the whole inhabitants of the three provinces.
The Qing military took two years to return to Xinjiang. Once they did, tens of millions of Hui Muslims escaped to Russia, while the Uaurian UAUs of Yaqub Beg, Uzbek and Afghan soldiers have been arrested or executed. The whole dying brought on by this riot could be over 12 million. 
5 Yellow Turban Rebel
Though the 19th century China was a place where the prevailing horror, historic China was not higher. Actually, AD 200 was the peak of Chinese brutality earlier than Mao's arrival. Between 184 and 205, Chinese peasants rebelled towards the Han Dynasty. The yellow Turban insurrection, a devastating conflict, stands out as the solely conflict history inspired by the Taoist Conflict.
Zhang Jiao, the primary leader of the revolt, hit the economic nausea of a later Han Dynasty to develop into a scary warlord. The peasants' complaints have been great: excessive taxes, giant debts to landowners, and the expansion of the tenant system, which included the compulsory corvee for the ft and obligatory army service.
The worsening of the state of affairs was the weak management of the Han Dynasty. After the Emperor's demise, it had fallen into the arms of courtroom manipulators, Imperials and their households and eunuchs. Corruption turned regular when government purchases have been bought and bought
Peasants endure most, particularly throughout drought and floods. When these appeared, the unqualified males in charge of the State Treasury typically had to admit that there was no meals.
Resulting from hunger and anger, the peasants shaped militia. The Taoist faith grasp Zhang was named the first chief of revolt as a result of he was a beloved healer among the peasants of the Hebei Province. Zhang's slogan was "The blue gray sky (which represents Chania) is dead, the yellow sky (the Taoist color) is set up." 
The peasant army, recognized for its distinctive yellow scarves, proved to be effective fighters. At first of the revolt, the rebels conquered the houses of Shandong Province, Confucius, Menci, and Zis.
From there Zhang and his brothers tried to spread the message of Taoism, which included the equal rights of farmers and the reform of the country. These messages, together with the assumed therapeutic powers of the Zhang household, noticed the rebels' victory over the Yellow River and in Beijing and its environment.
To cease the rebel, East Han organized a large army and commenced attacks in areas the place revolt flourished. In 184, Zhang Jiao died throughout Guangzhou's defense. The rebel management then fell into the palms of two different Zhang brothers, whereas the smaller bands of Yellow Turbans turned to bandit to keep the conflict alive.
Though Han succeeded in profitable the struggle, the cost of eradicating insurgency weakened the dynasty to the point that Basic Cao Cao, East Chief of Chief and bureaucrat who first tasted a struggle towards yellow turbans raised Han's weak spot to determine a separate state generally known as Cao Wei. It’s believed that the Yellow Turban insurrection led to 3 million and seven million deaths.
The Struggle of the Three Empires
The Yellow Riot led directly to the collapse of the Han Dynasty. Because the facility injuries all the time lead to bloodshed, it was solely a matter of time earlier than the civil warfare broke out in China. That's precisely what occurred in 220. Three rival kingdoms – Wei, Shu and Wu – went to struggle with one another to connect China. The struggle ended in 266 when the North China Jin Dynasty conquered East Wu.
When the East Han state collapsed, Cao Ca, Cao Cao's grandson, took control of the Wei state in northern China. The Wei Kingdom included a number of former Han generals. Other Han generals used chaos to determine their own kingdom. Common Shu-Han created the Kingdom of Shu in the mean time in Sichuan Province, while the other former Prime Minister of Han founded Wu Kingdom in Nanjing. These kingdoms virtually instantly had to struggle towards each other.
Both 263 or 264 Wei gained and conquered Shun. Two years later, Sima Yan / Wudi, one of the Wei generals, took the Wei throne and founded the Jin Dynasty. In 280, Jin gained Wun and united all the nations of the previous Han Dynasty. China continues to be overseen by Jin till 420.
The Three Kingdoms interval is greatest recognized in China for the Three Kingdoms of Romance, the basic of Chinese literature and one of the world's first novels. The ebook Shaanxi native Luo Guanzhong, the novel was launched in the 14th century. The great thing about words and the various infrastructure improvements (including the new irrigation and shipbuilding packages that Silk Street helps) have prevented this horrible actuality. 
The actual horror of this struggle is infiltrated by statistics: Through the Han Dynasty, China's population was 54 million. When Jin took energy, China's inhabitants was 16 million. Which means 36-40 million individuals died through the 60-year battle.
three Insurrection of Taiping
Spiritual ardour seized the late Qing empire. Particularly between 1850 and 1864, the rebellious Basic Hong Xiuquan declared himself a brother of Jesus Christ and a prophet of the New Age to the Chinese.
Inside the regular limits of Chinese history, Hong should by no means have had much to say concerning the rebel that commanded the large metropolis and virtually fell the dominion.
Hong was born in 1814 in Guangdong Province (Canton). As a young man, he took the civil service diploma required of all aspiring bureaucrats. He failed the check a number of occasions. Cheated, Hong decided to go residence.
In 1847, Hong Kong had a number of feverish visions for 30 days, together with one where he and his brothers fought the kingdoms of hell. To stop the demons from destroying the world, Hong proclaimed himself "the King of Heaven, the Lord of the King." 
His vision was to recruit poor and poor in South China. Hong Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom of Great Concord) promised heaven on earth, the removing of hated Qing and the abolition of overseas powers (particularly British and French) from China.
Taiping's imaginative and prescient of the brand new China included one where Christianity was associated with Confucianism, land reform and common property of the caretaker, an ordinary of equal status for males in males, and the abstinence of alcohol and opium
. Nanjing is a vital port city (named Tianjing) and one third of China. On the peak of Taiping's power, its military stood in one million women and men
The Taiping military began in 1853 to launch expeditions to the Beijing, Qing capital for captivity. Although Taiping gained several victories near the Yellow River, they by no means managed to capture Beijing. The movement quickly turned a fratricidal when Finance Minister Yang Xiuqing tried to exchange Hong.
Hong had Yang and his followers. Then, when Basic Wei Changhui began to develop "haughty," Hong had also murdered. These killings inspired a number of Taiping generals to vary sides and persuade Westerners to type their own armies to stop Taiping.
The most famous anti-Taiping pressure was Ever Victorious Army (EVA). This military raised British, American and French retailers in Shanghai. A military of army adventurers, mercenaries, and professional troopers ordered by the army Chinese foot-soldiers.
Frederick Townsend Ward, a 29-year-old experienced sailor from Salem, Massachusetts, and Charles "Chinese" Gordon, a British Army officer who later died in Sudan, led the EVA with pluck and plentiful Western weaponry. The EVA and the regular Qing Army, which have been properly outfitted with British and French weapons and ships, stopped the riot in 1864.
The destruction of the Taiping rebel was so nice that certain Chinese provinces did not get well properly from the injury to the 20th century. It’s believed that between 20 and 30 million Chinese soldiers and civilians have been killed in the course of the warfare.
2 Lushan Revolt
The worst army revolt in Chinese history was led by a person who as soon as promised his loyalty to the Emperor. Between 755 and 763, former Common Tang Dynasty An Lushan, who brought down the Tang Dynasty, captured two of the most essential cities in Chinese history and virtually utterly destroyed your complete population.
An Lushan didn’t begin as a insurgent. Actually, he was a hero for much of his life. Lushan (aka Xiongwu) was not a Han Chinese nor a member of the East Asian ethnic group. His father's household came from Bukhara in at this time's Uzbekistan. An's father was Sogdian, an Indo-European, who held his pink hair and inventive creativity.
The Sogdian ruled silk lengthy earlier than Chinese emperors. Ani's mother was Japanese Turkey (Gokturk) whose noble household had been involved in a Turkish buy in Mongolia in the fifth century.
The ethnicity of Lushan did not harm him. Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty inspired non-Chinese teams to hitch Tang paperwork, particularly the army. The late Roman Empire, just like the Tang Dynasty, appreciated these foederati battles for their preventing capacity and their wonderful horsemen. These troopers also desperately needed Tang, who discovered himself in the eighth century and unable to guard his limits from outdoors assaults
In the Battle of Talas in immediately's Kyrgyzstan, the Abbas Caliphate in Baghdad gained the Tang Army's supported Sogdia and Turkish mercenaries. After this wrestle, Central Asia was extra affected by Muslims than Chinese influences. The one shiny spot in the Tang Dynasty was their small victories in Tibet
On December 16, 755 Basic An Lushan, appointed Commander of the 150,000 robust military of Emperor Xuanzong, marched towards Tang. This can be a reasoned insurrection because he claimed that he had suffered Yang Guozhong's political competitor on the Tang Courtroom for violations.
The facility of An was not captured by Luoyang in Henan Province. At the moment, Luoyang was the japanese capital of the Tang Empire. In Luoyang, An declared the creation of the good Yan Dynasty as the primary Emperor. The forces of Basic Ani then moved to the abduction of South China and the capital of Chang & # 39; ani (Xi & # 39; an). 
The good Yan army took two years to capture the province of Henan. Meanwhile, Tang hired 4000 arabic mercenaries to defend Chang. Yan couldn't take the town.
Nevertheless, Yang Guozhong determined to struggle the good Yania on flat plains outdoors of Chang. Ani's males easily defeated this Tang pressure, and so Yang Guozhong and Emperor Xuanzong have been pressured to flee to Sichuan. Xuanzong lastly give up, and Chang turned an enormous Yan capital.
The Lushan Riot first faced back in 757. That yr, the Tang Army, consisting of 22,000 Arabs and Uighurs, brought again Chang. These Muslim forces are marrying local Han ladies, making a minority of at this time's Hui Muslims.
In the same yr, Lushan's son An Qingxu killed his father and then killed An Lushan's good friend Shi Siming. His son also murdered Siming, and the instability of the Larger Yan Courtroom led to the failure of a whole lot of generals again to Tang.
By 763, inner disputes and renewed Tang errors stopped the rebel. The final dying event was staggering. In 754 Chinese individuals have been over 52 million. By the yr 764, solely 16.9 million Chinese survived. Because of this 36 million individuals drowned in Lushan's seek for energy.
1 Conquest of the Ming Dynasty Manchu
The final Chinese Chinese dynasty was the Ming Dynasty, which lasted from 1368 to 1644. Mingia is widely known at this time not only due to her lovely artistic endeavors, especially using porcelain, but in addition as a result of they poured the yoke of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and at the similar time established protectorates in Vietnam and Myanmar.
Ming's successor to the Qing Dynasty, lasts 276 years and would improve China's imperial possession to the greatest extent. The Qing Empire conquered Tibet, Mongolia and a part of Siberia.
Immediately, many Chinese individuals have fun Qing due to China's enlargement. Nevertheless, if these thanks come from the Han Chinese, they’re tragically ironic. In any case, underneath the Manchu Qing, Han Chinese have been officially second-class residents and suffered the worst conquests of history.
The individuals of Manchu in northern China, who’re ethnically associated to different Tungusic nations, such because the Siberian evenings, Russian-Ukrainian Orochs and Xinjiang Sibe have been led by Nurchaci, the army commander of Jurchen in the 18th century. For 30 years, Ming China loved relative peace because Nurhaci was too busy army to unite the 5 northern Chinese Jurchen tribes. When this was completed, Nurhaci set up eight banners, a patrilinear system for army and civilian administration.
In 1616, Nurhaci proclaimed himself a canon of the reconstructed Jin Dynasty (referred to as Later Jin). In an effort to show his wealth and status, he created a stunning palace in his capital, Mukden (now Shenyang). Two years later, Nurhaci declared struggle on Ming after he had produced a doc entitled "Seven Great Attractions". 
Here, Nurhaci accused the Ming authorities of favoring the Yehe tribe, one of the northern tribes that Nurhaci had gone to conflict with. Until his dying in 1626, Nurhaci went to victory, defeating Ming's armies, Mongol tribes and the Korean Joseon dynasty.
Regardless of the good Jurchen / Manchu soldier, the Ming Dynasty collapsed inside. Because of financial instability and countless peasant rebels, Han Chinese officials requested Nurhac's successor Hong Taiy to call himself as Emperor. April 24, 1644 Beijing was imprisoned by a peasant military led by Li Zicheng, who in turn proclaimed the formation of the Shun Dynasty.
Slightly over a month later in the Battle of Shanhai Move, Wu Sangui Ming's army joined Manchus and opened China's Chinese Wall in Shanhai Passport to convey Prince Dorgon's Manchu military to Central Plain. Ever since 1662, the Qing Dynasty Manchus slowly defeated Zhang Xianzhong, Shun and Xian Dynasty peasant leader. This conquest of struggle killed over 25 million individuals. The conquest also revealed Qing's incapability to cruelty.
The Qing judges started a penalty often known as "death of a thousand cuts" (lingchi). The punishments which were punished for this punishment will endure harmless cuts for hours earlier than they have been throttled and demolished. Though this punishment was rare, queuing surgery was far more widespread.
Tämä hiustenleikkaus, johon sisältyi täysin ajeltu pää, lukuun ottamatta pitkää lattiaa, tuli osa Han-kiinalaista elämää, kun Qing-keisari Shunzi määräsi kaikki Han-miehet ottamaan sen käyttöön merkkinä. Kun Hanin kiinalaiset miehet valloittivat tätä järjestystä, Qing aloitti lakkauttamispolitiikan. Nimittäin, jos joku kieltäytyi käyttämästä kampausta, hän menettäisi päänsä.
Qing ja Manchuksen pelko oli niin suuri, että jopa 1920-luvulla, kauan sen jälkeen, kun viimeinen Qing keisari vuonna 1911, monet Han-kiinalaiset miehet kieltäytyivät vielä leikkaamasta jonojaan.
Benjamin Welton on Bostonissa toimiva freelance-kirjailija.